Metric or other Asian, European or South American standard connections can be joined at the tie-in points with an adapter spool or adapter flange as shown. For adapter spools one flange is drilled for ANSI bolting and one flange is drilled for the other standard bolting. With an adapter flange one side is drilled and tapped for ANSI stud bolts and one side is drilled and tapped for the other standard stud bolts.
Use of adapters permits all plants to utilize MONDI piping to improve reliability of acid plant piping systems. MONDI piping systems are operating in many countries and plants designed to other piping standards.